Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , vol. Abstract Zinc oxide nanoparticles ZnO NPs are used in an increasing number of industrial products such as rubber, paint, coating, and cosmetics. help me write my thesis statement for cause and effect essay View at Google Scholar C. Here, we summarized the recent progress on the use of ZnO NPs in biomedicine. The mechanism of ZnO NPs-induced toxicity in human liver cells [ 42 ].
ZnO NPs have emerged a promising potential in biomedicine, especially in the fields of anticancer and antibacterial fields, which are involved with their potent ability to trigger excess reactive oxygen species ROS production, release zinc ions, and induce cell apoptosis. In the future, we believe ZnO NPs can be explored as antibacterial agents, such as ointments, lotions, and mouthwashes. online thesis nit rourkela Anticancer Activity Cancer, a condition of uncontrolled malignant cell proliferation, is typically treated by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery in the past several decades.
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The results demonstrated that ZnO NPs could induce accumulation of autophagosomes and impairment of autophagic flux in A cells. Biosynthetic and environment friendly technology for the synthesis of ZnO NPs are believed to be more ecofriendly, economical low priced , nontoxic, and biocompatible than chemical and physical methods. Therefore, the development of nanoparticles with controlled structures that are uniform in size, morphology, and functionality is essential for various biomedical applications. The particle sizes can be regulated by selecting different pyrolytic temperatures.
Synthesis of ZnO NPs The biological activity of nanoparticles depends on factors including surface chemistry, size distribution, particle morphology, and particle reactivity in solution. The advantages of this method are the low production costs and high homogeneity of the crystalline structure and morphology. ZnO NPs have been observed to show powerful cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells, which was associated with the occurrence of apoptosis, more than cell cycle arrest. The central attention is on the functionalization of the ZnO NPs surface with different kinds of biological molecules comprising different types of proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, folic acid, hyaluronan, and so on [ 47 , 57 , 71 — 73 ]. Subsequently, white ZnO NPs can be obtained via the thermal decomposition process.
The mitochondrial electron transport chain is known to be associated with intracellular ROS generation, and anticancer agents entering into cancer cells could destroy the electron transport chain and release huge amounts of ROS [ 58 , 59 ]. Nowadays, the development of green chemistry has attracted more and more attention because it is mostly environmentally friendly [ 23 ]. Targeted nanoparticles NPs also provide more therapeutic benefits besides specificity and specific localization like high payload, multidrug conjugation, easy tuning of release kinetics, selective localization, and bypass of multidrug resistance mechanism [ 70 ]. Crystal growth is a self-induced procedure occurring at room temperature.
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Furthermore, coupled with ultraviolet UV illumination, Dox-ZnO nanocomplexes caused more cell death through photocatalytic properties and synergistically triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis. Wiegand explored the role of ZnO-functionalized textile fibers in the control of oxidative stress in AD in vitro and in vivo [ ]. best essay website books for competitive exams It was worth to note that these nanoparticles did not show any remarkable toxicity for human hepatoma cells when their concentrations were less than 0. In addition, it can be coated on various substrates to prevent bacteria from adhering, spreading, and breeding in medical devices.
Wiegand explored the role of ZnO-functionalized textile fibers in the control of oxidative stress in AD in vitro and in vivo [ ]. This procedure could accelerate the release of OH ions, and the reaction at low temperature under air conditions could prevent rapid particle growth and get ZnO sols. essay help writers uk cheap Although all these therapies seem to be very effective for killing cancer cells in theory, these nonselective therapy methods also introduce a lot of serious side effects [ 35 ]. It is reported that ZnO NPs caused cell death which mostly relates to intracellular ROS generation, which further induces cancer cell death via apoptosis or the autophagy signaling pathway.
However, excessive ROS will lead to mitochondrial damage and result in the loss of protein activity balance that finally causes cell apoptosis [ 60 ]. Thus, nano-ZnO is commonly used as a food additive. how to write introduction of thesis pdf Copyright American Chemical Society.
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In addition, it can be coated on various substrates to prevent bacteria from adhering, spreading, and breeding in medical devices. Using nanoparticles in targeted drug delivery provides exciting opportunities for much more safety and effective cancer treatment. The study found that it is an obvious improvement of AD pruritus and subjective sleep quality when AD patients wore the ZnO textiles overnight on 3 consecutive days.
HT cells stained with acridine orange dye displayed remarkably orange and red fluorescence upon ZnO NPs treatment, which indicated the autophagic cells with acidic vesicular organelles. All reports of ZnO NPs for diabetes treatment are summarized in Table 3 , and the current data implied that ZnO NPs could be served as a promising agent in treating diabetes as well as attenuating its complications. Anticancer Activity Cancer, a condition of uncontrolled malignant cell proliferation, is typically treated by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery in the past several decades. Correspondence should be addressed to Jiye Cai ; nc. The advantages of this method are the low production costs and high homogeneity of the crystalline structure and morphology.